There are some views of knowledge is to support the idea of a specific job in goal setting to improve performance. This paper will focus on employee motivation and job performance through job design. From the experiences of academics and those involved in human resource management and human behavior in organizations where the work is designed to be both a positive impact, job design are key factors that planned job effectiveness (Garg & Rastogi, 2005).
Design work is very important to reduce stress and indirectly to improved motivation and job performance of employees will increase. As a result, the positive impact can be realized if the organization would be more effective to compete in global markets.
A major factor of effective job performance is a good job design. Job design refers to the first instance in which management creates a job by specifying its duties and responsibilities and the process by which management decide individual job tasks and authority (Ivancevich, Konopaske & Matteson 2008).
Job design includes three main categories: job enlargement, job rotation, and job enrichment (Maxwell, 2008). The job characteristics model, a more recent approach to job design, includes five core job characteristics that include skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and job feedback.
Job rotation involves creating a wider range of employees. Job rotation allows workers to change jobs regularly, with a special move them from one to another. Typically, these programs set a new employee to work for a certain period in the various departments, business units or geographic locations (Robbin, Bergman & Stagg, 1997).
According to (George & Jones, 2007) job enlargement involves increasing the number of the job, workers perform new tasks, but still doing the original work which has given all of the duties and responsibilities of the same challenges. Job enlargement is often referred to as the horizon for the content of the work load of work expanded, but the challenge remains consistent. Job enlargement will lead to the lack of diversity in the work of specialization, these causes a reduction of workers challenge and meaningfulness of work (Robbin, Bergman & Stagg, 1997).
In addition to job rotation and job enlargement, job enrichment is very important in maintaining the enthusiasm of employees and long-term productivity. Workers need activities such as decision making, autonomy, variety, and challenge.
Effective approaches to job enrichment are the change of work every day or increase the participation of individuals in decisions that affect their work (Maxwell, 2008).
Job characteristics model is a new approach to job design. This is a direct result of the enrichment work and efforts to identify an individual situation and to design the most effective job (Krietner & Kinicki, 2001). Each job consists of five degrees of job characteristics, including diversity of skills, task identity, task significance, and feedback on the job. The core dimension of this work was to determine whether the meaningfulness of tenure was completed by the employee, the responsibility for the results of the work, and knowledge of the actual results of its work. If the psychologist met, employees will have the motivation, satisfaction, increase productivity, and effectiveness of the work (Maxwell, 2008).
The Job Characteristic Model. Notice how the first three dimensions – skill variety, task identity and task significance – combine to create meaningful work. That is, if these three characteristics exist in a job, we can predict that the person will view his or her job as being important, valuable and worthwhile. Notice, too, that job that process autonomy gives the job incumbent a feeling of personal responsibility for the results and that, if a job provides feedback; the employee will know how effectively he or she is performing.